Yoneda et al., 2018. Increases in Neuroticism May Be an Early Indicator of Dementia

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Graham, E. K., Berg, A. I., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R., Johansson, B., Mroczek, D., & Piccinin, A. (2018). Increases in Neuroticism May Be an Early Indicator of Dementia: A Coordinated Analysis. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Science; doi: 10.1093/geronb/gby034

Year: 
2018
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Yoneda, T. & Piccinin, A. Increases in neuroticism in individuals with incident diagnosis of dementia and MCI: Implications of heterogeneity between datasets (2018). Symposium presentation at the European Conference of Personality, in Zadar, Croatia.

Yoneda, T., Graham, E. K., Lewis, N., Johansson, B., & Piccinin, A. Covariation between Change in Neuroticism and Change in Cognitive Functioning (Nov, 2018). Symposium Presentation to be presented at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Boston, MA

Abstract: 

Objectives: Although personality change is typically considered a symptom of dementia, some studies suggest that personality change may be an early indication of dementia. One prospective study found increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis. This study extends this research by examining trajectories of personality traits in additional longitudinal studies of aging.

Methods: Three independent series of latent growth curve models were fitted to data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Einstein Aging Study to estimate trajectories of personality traits in individuals with incident dementia diagnosis (total N = 210), in individuals with incident Mild Cognitive Impairment (N = 135), and in individuals who did not receive a diagnosis during follow-up periods (total N = 1740).

Results: Controlling for sex, age, education, depressive symptoms, and the interaction between age and education, growth curve analyses consistently revealed significant linear increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis in both datasets and in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Analyses examining individuals without a diagnosis revealed nonsignificant change in neuroticism overtime.

Discussion: Replication of our previous work in 2 additional datasets provides compelling evidence that increases in neuroticism may be early indication of dementia, which can facilitate development of screening assessments.

Yoneda et al., 2018. Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B. & Piccinin, A. (2017). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72(6), 922-931, DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbw006

Year: 
2017
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Yoneda, T. & Piccinin, A. A coordinated analysis examining personality change in older adults: Consistent results despite heterogeneity between datasets (November, 2018). Symposium Presentation to be presented at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Boston, MA.

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Knight, J., Graham, E. K., Mroczek, D., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Pedersen, N., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R. & Piccinin, A. (2017). Investigation of Personality Using Different Time Matrices, Control Variables and Inclusion Groups. Poster Presentation at IAGG conference in San Francisco. 

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Graham, E. K., Mroczek, D., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Pedersen, N., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2016). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Symposium Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, New Orleans, LA.  

Yoneda, T. (2016). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC. 

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Comijs, H. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2015). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Poster Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Washington, D.C.
 

Yoneda, T., Piccinin, A. & Johansson, B. (April, 2015). Association between cognition and personality change in the oldest-old. Presentation at University of Victoria Social Dimensions of Health 2015 Conference, Victoria, BC.

Yoneda, T., Koval, A., Johansson, B. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2014). Personality change preceding diagnosis of dementia in the oldest-old. Poster Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Washington, D.C.

Abstract: 

Introduction: Although personality change is typically considered a symptom of dementia, some studies suggest that personality change may be an early indication of dementia. This project examines this possibility by examining trajectories of personality traits preceding dementia diagnosis in several longitudinal studies of aging.

Methods: Three independent series of latent growth curve models were fitted to data from the Origins of Variance in the Oldest-Old (OCTO-Twin), Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and Einstein Aging Study (EAS) to estimate trajectories of personality traits in individuals with incident dementia diagnosis (Total N = 295), in individuals with incident Mild Cognitive Impairment (N = 135), and in individuals who did not receive a diagnosis during follow-up periods (Total N = 2109).

Results: Controlling for sex, age, education, depressive symptoms, and the interaction between age and education, growth curve analyses consistently revealed significant linear increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis in both datasets and in individuals with MCI. Analyses examining individuals without a diagnosis revealed non-significant change in neuroticism overtime.

Discussion: Replication in several datasets provides compelling evidence that increases in neuroticism may be early indication of dementia, which can facilitate development of screening assessments and aid in early care strategies.

Knight et al., 2018. Olfactory Identification and Episodic Memory in Older Adults

Knight, J. E., Bennett, D. A., & Piccinin, A. M. (2018). Variability and Coupling of Olfactory Identification and Episodic Memory in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gby058. 

Year: 
2018
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Knight, J. E., & Piccinin, A. M. (2018, April). Poster. Foreshadowing Alzheimer’s: Variability and Coupling of Olfaction and Cognition. In D. Burgoyne & R. Gooding (Eds.), Research Now: Contemporary Writing in the Disciplines. Broadview Press.

Knight, J. E., & Piccinin, A. M. (2017, July). Foreshadowing Alzheimer’s: Variability and Coupling of Olfaction and Cognition. Poster presented at 21st IAGG World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG), San Francisco, USA.

Knight, J. E., & Piccinin, A. M. (2016, November). Olfaction as a Predictor of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology in Old Age: A Growth Curve Analysis. Poster presented at Gerontological Society of America (GSA) Scientific Meeting, New Orleans, USA

Knight, J. E., & Piccinin, A. M. (2016, July). Olfaction as a Risk Factor for Dementia, Mortality and Stroke. Poster presented at Alzheimer’s International Conference (AAIC), Toronto, CA.

Abstract: 

Objectives: To determine whether assessment-to-assessment fluctuations in episodic memory (EM) reflect fluctuations in olfaction over time.

Methods: Within-person coupled variation in EM and the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was examined in 565 participants aged 58–106 with autopsy data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. A growth model for up to 15 years of EM data, with BSIT as time-varying covariate, was estimated accounting for main effects of sex, education, ε4 allele, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, BSIT and time-varying BSIT, as well as the interaction between AD pathology and time-varying BSIT.

Results: Individuals with higher BSIT scores (b = .01, standard error [SE] = .004, p = .009) had slower declines in EM. High AD pathology (b = −.06, SE = .02, p = .001) was associated with more rapid declines in EM. The association between time-specific fluctuations in EM and BSIT differed by level of AD pathology (b = .08, SE = .034, p = .028), with a higher EM–BSIT association at higher levels of pathology. Discussion: BSIT and EM fluctuate together over measurement occasions, particularly for individuals with AD pathology. Repeated intraindividual measurements provide information that could lead to early detection and inexpensive monitoring of accumulating AD pathology.

Robitaille et al., 2018. Transitions across cognitive states and death among older adults in relation to education: a multi-state survival model using data from six longitudinal studies.

Robitaille, A., van den Hout, A., Machado, R.M., Bennett, D.A., Čukić, I., Deary, I.J., Hofer, S.M., Hoogendijk, E.O., Huisman, M., Johansson, B., Koval, A.V., van der Noordt, M., Piccinin, A.M., Rijnhart, J.J.M., Singh-Manoux, A., Skoog, J., Skoog, I., Starr, J., Vermunt, L., Clouston, S., Muniz-Terrera, G. (2018). Transitions across cognitive states and death among older adults in relation to education: a multi-state survival model using data from six longitudinal studies. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 14(4), 462-472. DOI: 10.1016/j.jalz.2017.10.003

Year: 
2018
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Robitaille, A., Van den Hout A., Machado, R.J.M., Čukić, I., Deary, I.J., Hofer, S.M., Hoogendijke, E.O., Johansson, B., Koval, A.V., Van der Noordt, M., Piccinin, A.M., Rijnhart, J.J.M., Singh-Manoux, A., Skoog, J., Skoog, I., Vermunt, L., Muniz-Terrera, G. (2017, July). Transitions across Cognitive States and Mortality among Older Adults: A Multi-State Survival Model. Paper presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC), London, UK.  

Hoogendijke, E.O., Robitaille, A., Van den Hout A., Machado, R.J.M., Čukić, I., Hofer, S.M., Johansson, B., Koval, A.V., Van der Noordt, M., Rijnhart, J.J.M., A., Skoog, J., Vermunt, L., Muniz-Terrera, G. (May, 2017). Transitions across cognitive states and mortality among older adults in relation to education. A multistate survival model using data from six longitudinal studies. Paper presented at the 29th REVES meeting, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

Abstract: 

Introduction: This study examines the role of educational attainment, an indicator of cognitive reserve, on transitions in later life between cognitive states (normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), mild MMSE impairment, and severe MMSE impairment) and death. Methods: Analysis of six international longitudinal studies was performed using a coordinated approach. Multistate survival models were used to estimate the transition patterns via different cognitive states. Life expectancies were estimated. Results: Across most studies, a higher level of education was associated with a lower risk of transitioning from normal MMSE to mild MMSE impairment but was not associated with other transitions. Those with higher levels of education and socioeconomic status had longer nonimpaired life expectancies. Discussion: This study highlights the importance of education in later life and that early life experiences can delay later compromised cognitive health. This study also demonstrates the feasibility and benefit in conducting coordinated analysis across multiple studies to validate findings.

Robitaille, 2014. Physical Activity And Cognitive Functioning in the Oldest Old

Robitaille, A., Muniz, G., Lindwall, M., Piccinin, A. M., Hoffman, L., Johansson, B., & Hofer, S. M. (2014). Physical activity and cognitive functioning in the oldest old: within-and between-person cognitive activity and psychosocial mediators. European Journal of Ageing, 11(4), 333-347.

Year: 
2012
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Robitaille, A., Muniz, G., Lindwall, M., Piccinin, A.M., Hoffman, L., Johansson, B., & Hofer, S.M. (October, 2012). Physical activity and cognitive functioning among older adults: Within- and between-person cognitive and psychosocial mediators.  Poster session presented at the 41th Annual Scientific and Educational Meeting of the CAG, Vancouver, BC.

Abstract: 

The current study examines the role of social contact intensity, cognitive activity, and depressive symptoms as within- and between-person mediators for the relationships between physical activity and cognitive functioning. All three types of mediators were considered simultaneously using multilevel structural equations modeling with longitudinal data. The sample consisted of 470 adults ranging from 79.37 to 97.92 years of age (M = 83.4; SD = 3.2) at the first occasion. Between-person differences in cognitive activity mediated the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning, such that individuals who participated in more physical activities, on average, engaged in more cognitive activities and, in turn, showed better cognitive functioning. Mediation of between-person associations between physical activity and memory through social contact intensity was also significant. At the within-person level, only cognitive activity mediated the relationship between physical activity and change in cognition; however, the indirect effect was small. Depressive symptomatology was not found to significantly mediate within- or between-person effects on cognitive change. Our findings highlight the implications of physical activity participation for the prevention of cognitive decline and the importance of meditational processes at the between-person level. Physical activity can provide older adults with an avenue to make new friendships and engage in more cognitive activities which, in turn, attenuates cognitive decline.

 

Rast & Hofer, 2014. Longitudinal design considerations to optimize power to detect variances and covariances among rates of change: Simulation results based on actual longitudinal studies

Rast, P., & Hofer, S. M. (2014). Longitudinal design considerations to optimize power to detect variances and covariances among rates of change: Simulation results based on actual longitudinal studies. Psychological Methods, 19(1), 133.

Year: 
2012
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Hofer, S. M., & Rast, P. (October, 2012). Substantial power to detect variance and covariance among rates of change: Results based on actual longitudinal studies and related simulations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, Vancouver, BC

Abstract: 

We investigated the power to detect variances and covariances in rates of change in the context of existing longitudinal studies using linear bivariate growth curve models. Power was estimated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Our findings show that typical longitudinal study designs have substantial power to detect both variances and covariances among rates of change in a variety of cognitive, physical functioning, and mental health outcomes. We performed simulations to investigate the interplay among number and spacing of occasions, total duration of the study, effect size, and error variance on power and required sample size. The relation between growth rate reliability (GRR) and effect size to the sample size required to detect power ≥ .80 was non-linear, with rapidly decreasing sample sizes needed as GRR increases. The results presented here stand in contrast to previous simulation results and recommendations (Hertzog, Lindenberger, Ghisletta, & von Oertzen, 2006Hertzog, von Oertzen, Ghisletta, & Lindenberger, 2008von Oertzen, Ghisletta, & Lindenberger, 2010), which are limited due to confounds between study length and number of waves, error variance with GCR, and parameter values which are largely out of bounds of actual study values. Power to detect change is generally low in the early phases (i.e. first years) of longitudinal studies but can substantially increase if the design is optimized. We recommend additional assessments, including embedded intensive measurement designs, to improve power in the early phases of long-term longitudinal studies.

Alwin & Hofer, 2011. Health and Cognition in Aging Research

Alwin, D. F., & Hofer, S. M. (2011). Health and cognition in aging research. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 66B(s1), i9-i16.

Year: 
2011
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

This supplemental issue of The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences is based on papers presented at a conference on “Cognition, Health, and Aging: Integrating Perspectives across Disciplines” held at Pennsylvania State University, October 30– 31, 2009. This conference focused on discussing new research findings and methodological approaches regarding the interplay of the dynamics of biological factors in cognitive and related outcomes and associated physiological changes that are linked to cognitive aging, including sensory and disease-related changes. We attracted an outstanding group of researchers doing work in these areas, across several disciplines—biology, epidemiology, demography, developmental psychology, gerontology, neuropsychology, and sociology—to consider how best to measure these processes and model relevant data in ways that sort out aggregate population trends and individual-level age-related changes in health and cognitive functioning.

In the following, we summarize the key contributions of the papers presented at the conference, many of which are published in the present supplementary issue.

PIccinin et al., 2011. Terminal Decline From Within- and Between-Person Perspectives, Accounting for Incident Dementia

Piccinin, A.M., Muniz, G., Matthews, F. & Johansson, B. (2011). Terminal decline from within and between person perspectives, accounting for incident dementia. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 66(4), 391-401.

Year: 
2011
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Muniz, G., Piccinin, A.M., Johansson, B. Matthews, F. & Hofer, S. M. (November, 2011). Do all individuals experience a change in age-related cognitive decline? In A.M. Piccinin & G. Muniz (Chairs), Advances in Understanding Cognitive Aging: Longitudinal Research on Change, Variation, and Plasticity. Symposium conducted at the 64th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Boston, MA.

Abstract: 

Objective: The terminal cognitive decline hypothesis has been debated for almost 50 years. This hypothesis implies a change in rate of decline within an individual. Therefore, we examine the hypothesis from a within-person perspective using a time to death chronological structure.

Method: Scores on a Swedish version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Information and Block Design scores from 461 OCTO-Twin Study participants with confirmed death dates were modeled using quadratic growth curve models including both age and distance from death at study entry, sex, education, and dementia diagnosis as covariates of initial performance and of linear and quadratic change over time.

Results: Information scores showed statistically significant evidence of slight within-person acceleration of declines in the no dementia group. Individuals with incident dementia declined more quickly, and those who were closer to death at study baseline had a stronger acceleration. Block Design scores declined but did not show evidence of such acceleration either within or across individuals: Decline was faster in incident cases closer to death at study entry.

Discussion. Within-person evidence of terminal decline is not as strong as previously published between-person results. Strategies for focusing models on longitudinal aspects of available data and the extent to which lack of within-person evidence for terminal decline may stem from common data limitations are discussed.

Sliwinski et al., 2009. Intraindividual change and variability in daily stress processes: Findings from two measurement-burst diary studies.

Sliwinski, M. J., Almeida, D. M., Smyth, J., & Stawski, R. S. (2009). Intraindividual change and variability in daily stress processes: Findings from two measurement-burst diary studies. Psychology and Aging, 24(4), 828.

Year: 
2009
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

There is little longitudinal information on aging-related changes in emotional responses to negative events. In the present article, we examined intraindividual change and variability in the within-person coupling of daily stress and negative affect using data from 2 measurement-burst daily diary studies. Three main findings emerged. First, average reactivity to daily stress increased longitudinally, and this increase was evident across most of the adult lifespan. Second, individual differences in emotional reactivity to daily stress exhibited long-term temporal stability, but this stability was greatest in midlife and decreased in old age. Third, reactivity to daily stress varied reliably within-persons (across-time), with individuals exhibiting higher levels of reactivity during times when reporting high levels of global subject stress in the previous month. Taken together, the present results emphasize the importance of modeling dynamic psychosocial and aging processes that operate across different time scales for understanding age-related changes in daily stress processes. 

Variables: 

Hofer & Piccinin, 2009. Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies.

Hofer, S. M., & Piccinin, A. M.  (2009). Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies. Psychological Methods, 14(2), 150-164.

Year: 
2009
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, the authors articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies.

Variables: 

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