Leszko et al., 2016. Future directions in the study of personality in adulthood and older age

Leszko, M., Elleman, L. G., Bastarache, E. D., Graham, E. K., & Mroczek, D. K. (2016). Future directions in the study of personality in adulthood and older age. Gerontology, 62(2), 210-215.

Year: 
2016
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Over the past 20 years, empirical evidence has brought about a change in the view on how, or even whether, personality traits change or develop in adulthood and later life. Now we know personality can and does change for many people, if not most. Changes in personality may occur due to biological or environmental factors. This paper presents key empirical findings on personality change in adulthood and provides evidence that personality change affects mental and physical health. Our goal is to provide a broad overview on personality change research that would be an invaluable resource for students and researchers. We organize this paper into 3 sections. The first is focused on techniques in analyzing personality change in adulthood and later life. The second is focused on personality change as an outcome; we explore what factors predict personality change. The third discusses a relatively novel idea: personality change as a predictor of mental and physical health. We conclude that more research on factors predicting personality change is needed and we provide suggestions on how research on personality change can progress.

 

Mroczek, D. K., 2014. Personality plasticity, healthy aging, and interventions.

Mroczek, D.K. (2014). Personality plasticity, healthy aging, and interventions. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), 1470-1474.

Year: 
2014
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality dimensions and cognitive dimensions and in part due to evidence showing personality is more dynamic and plastic than once believed. The commentary concludes with a discussion of the role of longitudinal investigations to inform interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Turiano et al., 2013. Personality and the leading behavioral contributors of mortality.

Turiano, N. A., Chapman, B. P., Gruenewald, T. L., & Mroczek, D. K. (2015). Personality and the leading behavioral contributors of mortality. Health Psychology, 34(1), 51.

Year: 
2015
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Objective: Personality traits predict both health behaviors and mortality risk across the life course. However, there are few investigations that have examined these effects in a single study. Thus, there are limitations in assessing if health behaviors explain why personality predicts health and longevity. Method: Utilizing 14-year mortality data from a national sample of over 6,000 adults from the Midlife in the United States Study, we tested whether alcohol use, smoking behavior, and waist circumference mediated the personality–mortality association. Results: After adjusting for demographic variables, higher levels of Conscientiousness predicted a 13% reduction in mortality risk over the follow-up. Structural equation models provided evidence that heavy drinking, smoking, and greater waist circumference significantly mediated the Conscientiousness–mortality association by 42%. Conclusion: The current study provided empirical support for the health-behavior model of personality—Conscientiousness influences the behaviors persons engage in and these behaviors affect the likelihood of poor health outcomes. Findings highlight the usefulness of assessing mediation in a structural equation modeling framework when testing proportional hazards. In addition, the current findings add to the growing literature that personality traits can be used to identify those at risk for engaging in behaviors that deteriorate health and shorten the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Turiano et al., 2012. Big 5 personality traits and interleukin-6: Evidence for “healthy Neuroticism” in a US population sample

Turiano, N. A., Mroczek, D. K., Moynihan, J., & Chapman, B. P. (2013). Big 5 personality traits and interleukin-6: Evidence for “healthy Neuroticism” in a US population sample. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 28, 83-89.

Year: 
2012
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

The current study investigated if the Big 5 personality traits predicted interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in a national sample over the course of 5 years. In addition, interactions among the Big 5 were tested to provide a more accurate understanding of how personality traits may influence an inflammatory biomarker. Data included 1054 participants in the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) biomarkers subproject. The Big 5 personality traits were assessed in 2005–2006 as part of the main MIDUS survey. Medication use, comorbid conditions, smoking behavior, alcohol use, body mass index, and serum levels of IL-6 were assessed in 2005–2009 as part of the biomarkers subproject. Linear regression analyses examined personality associations with IL-6. A significant Conscientiousness*Neuroticism interaction revealed that those high in both Conscientiousness and Neuroticism had lower circulating IL-6 levels than people with all other configurations of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Adjustment for health behaviors diminished the magnitude of this association but did not eliminate it, suggesting that lower comorbid conditions and obesity may partly explain the lower inflammation of those high in both Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Our findings suggest, consistent with prior speculation, that average to higher levels of Neuroticism can in some cases be associated with health benefits – in this case when it is accompanied by high Conscientiousness. Using personality to identify those at risk may lead to greater personalization in the prevention and remediation of chronic inflammation.

Vaidya et al., 2008. Differential stability and individual growth trajectories of big five and affective traits during young adulthood

Vaidya, J. G., Gray, E. K., Haig, J. R., Mroczek, D. K., & Watson, D. (2008). Differential stability and individual growth trajectories of big five and affective traits during young adulthood. Journal of personality, 76(2), 267-304.

Year: 
2008
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Big Five and affective traits were measured at three assessments when participants were on average 18, 21, and 24 years old. Rank‐order stability analyses revealed that stability correlations tended to be higher across the second compared to the first retest interval; however, affective traits consistently were less stable than the Big Five. Median stability coefficients for the Big Five increased from .62 (Time 1 vs. Time 2) to .70 (Time 2 to Time 3); parallel increases also were observed for measures of negative affectivity (median rs=.49 and .55, respectively) and positive affectivity (median rs=.48 and .57, respectively). Growth curve analyses revealed significant change on each of the Big Five and affective traits, although many of the scales also showed significant variability in individual trajectories. Thus, rank‐order stability is increasing for a range of personality traits, although there also is significant variability in change trajectories during young adulthood.

Yoneda et al., 2018. Increases in Neuroticism May Be an Early Indicator of Dementia

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Graham, E. K., Berg, A. I., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R., Johansson, B., Mroczek, D., & Piccinin, A. (2018). Increases in Neuroticism May Be an Early Indicator of Dementia: A Coordinated Analysis. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Science; doi: 10.1093/geronb/gby034

Year: 
2018
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Yoneda, T. & Piccinin, A. Increases in neuroticism in individuals with incident diagnosis of dementia and MCI: Implications of heterogeneity between datasets (2018). Symposium presentation at the European Conference of Personality, in Zadar, Croatia.

Yoneda, T., Graham, E. K., Lewis, N., Johansson, B., & Piccinin, A. Covariation between Change in Neuroticism and Change in Cognitive Functioning (Nov, 2018). Symposium Presentation to be presented at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Boston, MA

Abstract: 

Objectives: Although personality change is typically considered a symptom of dementia, some studies suggest that personality change may be an early indication of dementia. One prospective study found increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis. This study extends this research by examining trajectories of personality traits in additional longitudinal studies of aging.

Methods: Three independent series of latent growth curve models were fitted to data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Einstein Aging Study to estimate trajectories of personality traits in individuals with incident dementia diagnosis (total N = 210), in individuals with incident Mild Cognitive Impairment (N = 135), and in individuals who did not receive a diagnosis during follow-up periods (total N = 1740).

Results: Controlling for sex, age, education, depressive symptoms, and the interaction between age and education, growth curve analyses consistently revealed significant linear increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis in both datasets and in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Analyses examining individuals without a diagnosis revealed nonsignificant change in neuroticism overtime.

Discussion: Replication of our previous work in 2 additional datasets provides compelling evidence that increases in neuroticism may be early indication of dementia, which can facilitate development of screening assessments.

Yoneda et al., 2018. Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B. & Piccinin, A. (2017). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72(6), 922-931, DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbw006

Year: 
2017
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Yoneda, T. & Piccinin, A. A coordinated analysis examining personality change in older adults: Consistent results despite heterogeneity between datasets (November, 2018). Symposium Presentation to be presented at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Boston, MA.

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Knight, J., Graham, E. K., Mroczek, D., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Pedersen, N., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R. & Piccinin, A. (2017). Investigation of Personality Using Different Time Matrices, Control Variables and Inclusion Groups. Poster Presentation at IAGG conference in San Francisco. 

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Graham, E. K., Mroczek, D., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Pedersen, N., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2016). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Symposium Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, New Orleans, LA.  

Yoneda, T. (2016). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC. 

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Comijs, H. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2015). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Poster Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Washington, D.C.
 

Yoneda, T., Piccinin, A. & Johansson, B. (April, 2015). Association between cognition and personality change in the oldest-old. Presentation at University of Victoria Social Dimensions of Health 2015 Conference, Victoria, BC.

Yoneda, T., Koval, A., Johansson, B. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2014). Personality change preceding diagnosis of dementia in the oldest-old. Poster Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Washington, D.C.

Abstract: 

Introduction: Although personality change is typically considered a symptom of dementia, some studies suggest that personality change may be an early indication of dementia. This project examines this possibility by examining trajectories of personality traits preceding dementia diagnosis in several longitudinal studies of aging.

Methods: Three independent series of latent growth curve models were fitted to data from the Origins of Variance in the Oldest-Old (OCTO-Twin), Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and Einstein Aging Study (EAS) to estimate trajectories of personality traits in individuals with incident dementia diagnosis (Total N = 295), in individuals with incident Mild Cognitive Impairment (N = 135), and in individuals who did not receive a diagnosis during follow-up periods (Total N = 2109).

Results: Controlling for sex, age, education, depressive symptoms, and the interaction between age and education, growth curve analyses consistently revealed significant linear increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis in both datasets and in individuals with MCI. Analyses examining individuals without a diagnosis revealed non-significant change in neuroticism overtime.

Discussion: Replication in several datasets provides compelling evidence that increases in neuroticism may be early indication of dementia, which can facilitate development of screening assessments and aid in early care strategies.

Graham et al., 2017. Personality predicts mortality risk: An integrative data analysis of 15 international longitudinal studies

Graham, E.K., Rutsohn, J.P., Turiano, N.A., Bendayan, R., Batterham, P.J., Gerstorf, D., Katz, M.J., Reynolds, C.A., Sharp, E.S., Yoneda, T.B., Bastarache, E.D., Elleman, L.G., Zelinski, E.M., Johansson, B., Kuh, D., Barnes, L.L., Bennett, D.A., Deeg, D.J.H., Lipton, R.B., Pedersen, N.L., Piccinin, A.M., Spiro, A. 3rd, Muniz-Terrera, G., Willis, S.L., Schaie, K.W., Roan, C., Herd, P., Hofer, S.M., & Mroczek, D.K. (2017). Personality Predicts Mortality Risk: An Integrative Data Analysis of 15 International Longitudinal Studies.

Year: 
2017
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were consistent predictors of mortality across studies. Smoking had a small mediating effect for neuroticism. Country and baseline age explained variation in effects: studies with older baseline age showed a pattern of protective effects (HR < 1.00) for openness, and U.S. studies showed a pattern of protective effects for extraversion. This study demonstrated coordinated analysis as a powerful approach to enhance replicability and reproducibility, especially for aging-related longitudinal research.