Ramsey et al., 2016. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors

Ramsey, J. L., Neupert, S. D., Mroczek, D. K., & Spiro III, A. (2016). The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults’ reactivity to health stressors. Psychology & health, 31(3), 364-378.

Year: 
2016
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Objectives. The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors.

Design. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days.

Results. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults.

Conclusion. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors.

Turiano et al., 2013. Personality and the leading behavioral contributors of mortality.

Turiano, N. A., Chapman, B. P., Gruenewald, T. L., & Mroczek, D. K. (2015). Personality and the leading behavioral contributors of mortality. Health Psychology, 34(1), 51.

Year: 
2015
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Objective: Personality traits predict both health behaviors and mortality risk across the life course. However, there are few investigations that have examined these effects in a single study. Thus, there are limitations in assessing if health behaviors explain why personality predicts health and longevity. Method: Utilizing 14-year mortality data from a national sample of over 6,000 adults from the Midlife in the United States Study, we tested whether alcohol use, smoking behavior, and waist circumference mediated the personality–mortality association. Results: After adjusting for demographic variables, higher levels of Conscientiousness predicted a 13% reduction in mortality risk over the follow-up. Structural equation models provided evidence that heavy drinking, smoking, and greater waist circumference significantly mediated the Conscientiousness–mortality association by 42%. Conclusion: The current study provided empirical support for the health-behavior model of personality—Conscientiousness influences the behaviors persons engage in and these behaviors affect the likelihood of poor health outcomes. Findings highlight the usefulness of assessing mediation in a structural equation modeling framework when testing proportional hazards. In addition, the current findings add to the growing literature that personality traits can be used to identify those at risk for engaging in behaviors that deteriorate health and shorten the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Turiano et al., 2012. Big 5 personality traits and interleukin-6: Evidence for “healthy Neuroticism” in a US population sample

Turiano, N. A., Mroczek, D. K., Moynihan, J., & Chapman, B. P. (2013). Big 5 personality traits and interleukin-6: Evidence for “healthy Neuroticism” in a US population sample. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 28, 83-89.

Year: 
2012
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

The current study investigated if the Big 5 personality traits predicted interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in a national sample over the course of 5 years. In addition, interactions among the Big 5 were tested to provide a more accurate understanding of how personality traits may influence an inflammatory biomarker. Data included 1054 participants in the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) biomarkers subproject. The Big 5 personality traits were assessed in 2005–2006 as part of the main MIDUS survey. Medication use, comorbid conditions, smoking behavior, alcohol use, body mass index, and serum levels of IL-6 were assessed in 2005–2009 as part of the biomarkers subproject. Linear regression analyses examined personality associations with IL-6. A significant Conscientiousness*Neuroticism interaction revealed that those high in both Conscientiousness and Neuroticism had lower circulating IL-6 levels than people with all other configurations of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Adjustment for health behaviors diminished the magnitude of this association but did not eliminate it, suggesting that lower comorbid conditions and obesity may partly explain the lower inflammation of those high in both Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Our findings suggest, consistent with prior speculation, that average to higher levels of Neuroticism can in some cases be associated with health benefits – in this case when it is accompanied by high Conscientiousness. Using personality to identify those at risk may lead to greater personalization in the prevention and remediation of chronic inflammation.

Vaidya et al., 2008. Differential stability and individual growth trajectories of big five and affective traits during young adulthood

Vaidya, J. G., Gray, E. K., Haig, J. R., Mroczek, D. K., & Watson, D. (2008). Differential stability and individual growth trajectories of big five and affective traits during young adulthood. Journal of personality, 76(2), 267-304.

Year: 
2008
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Big Five and affective traits were measured at three assessments when participants were on average 18, 21, and 24 years old. Rank‐order stability analyses revealed that stability correlations tended to be higher across the second compared to the first retest interval; however, affective traits consistently were less stable than the Big Five. Median stability coefficients for the Big Five increased from .62 (Time 1 vs. Time 2) to .70 (Time 2 to Time 3); parallel increases also were observed for measures of negative affectivity (median rs=.49 and .55, respectively) and positive affectivity (median rs=.48 and .57, respectively). Growth curve analyses revealed significant change on each of the Big Five and affective traits, although many of the scales also showed significant variability in individual trajectories. Thus, rank‐order stability is increasing for a range of personality traits, although there also is significant variability in change trajectories during young adulthood.

Yoneda et al., 2018. Increases in Neuroticism May Be an Early Indicator of Dementia

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Graham, E. K., Berg, A. I., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R., Johansson, B., Mroczek, D., & Piccinin, A. (2018). Increases in Neuroticism May Be an Early Indicator of Dementia: A Coordinated Analysis. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Science; doi: 10.1093/geronb/gby034

Year: 
2018
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Yoneda, T. & Piccinin, A. Increases in neuroticism in individuals with incident diagnosis of dementia and MCI: Implications of heterogeneity between datasets (2018). Symposium presentation at the European Conference of Personality, in Zadar, Croatia.

Yoneda, T., Graham, E. K., Lewis, N., Johansson, B., & Piccinin, A. Covariation between Change in Neuroticism and Change in Cognitive Functioning (Nov, 2018). Symposium Presentation to be presented at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Boston, MA

Abstract: 

Objectives: Although personality change is typically considered a symptom of dementia, some studies suggest that personality change may be an early indication of dementia. One prospective study found increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis. This study extends this research by examining trajectories of personality traits in additional longitudinal studies of aging.

Methods: Three independent series of latent growth curve models were fitted to data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Einstein Aging Study to estimate trajectories of personality traits in individuals with incident dementia diagnosis (total N = 210), in individuals with incident Mild Cognitive Impairment (N = 135), and in individuals who did not receive a diagnosis during follow-up periods (total N = 1740).

Results: Controlling for sex, age, education, depressive symptoms, and the interaction between age and education, growth curve analyses consistently revealed significant linear increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis in both datasets and in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Analyses examining individuals without a diagnosis revealed nonsignificant change in neuroticism overtime.

Discussion: Replication of our previous work in 2 additional datasets provides compelling evidence that increases in neuroticism may be early indication of dementia, which can facilitate development of screening assessments.

Yoneda et al., 2018. Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B. & Piccinin, A. (2017). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72(6), 922-931, DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbw006

Year: 
2017
Status: 
complete
Presentation Citations: 

Yoneda, T. & Piccinin, A. A coordinated analysis examining personality change in older adults: Consistent results despite heterogeneity between datasets (November, 2018). Symposium Presentation to be presented at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Boston, MA.

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Knight, J., Graham, E. K., Mroczek, D., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Pedersen, N., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R. & Piccinin, A. (2017). Investigation of Personality Using Different Time Matrices, Control Variables and Inclusion Groups. Poster Presentation at IAGG conference in San Francisco. 

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Graham, E. K., Mroczek, D., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Pedersen, N., Comijs, H., Katz, M., Lipton, R. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2016). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Symposium Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, New Orleans, LA.  

Yoneda, T. (2016). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC. 

Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., Comijs, H. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2015). Trajectories of Personality Traits Preceding Dementia Diagnosis: A Coordinated Analysis. Poster Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Washington, D.C.
 

Yoneda, T., Piccinin, A. & Johansson, B. (April, 2015). Association between cognition and personality change in the oldest-old. Presentation at University of Victoria Social Dimensions of Health 2015 Conference, Victoria, BC.

Yoneda, T., Koval, A., Johansson, B. & Piccinin, A. (November, 2014). Personality change preceding diagnosis of dementia in the oldest-old. Poster Presentation at the Gerontological Society of America Conference, Washington, D.C.

Abstract: 

Introduction: Although personality change is typically considered a symptom of dementia, some studies suggest that personality change may be an early indication of dementia. This project examines this possibility by examining trajectories of personality traits preceding dementia diagnosis in several longitudinal studies of aging.

Methods: Three independent series of latent growth curve models were fitted to data from the Origins of Variance in the Oldest-Old (OCTO-Twin), Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and Einstein Aging Study (EAS) to estimate trajectories of personality traits in individuals with incident dementia diagnosis (Total N = 295), in individuals with incident Mild Cognitive Impairment (N = 135), and in individuals who did not receive a diagnosis during follow-up periods (Total N = 2109).

Results: Controlling for sex, age, education, depressive symptoms, and the interaction between age and education, growth curve analyses consistently revealed significant linear increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis in both datasets and in individuals with MCI. Analyses examining individuals without a diagnosis revealed non-significant change in neuroticism overtime.

Discussion: Replication in several datasets provides compelling evidence that increases in neuroticism may be early indication of dementia, which can facilitate development of screening assessments and aid in early care strategies.

Graham et al., 2015. Personality & Earnings Lost: The Economic Costs of Work Cut Back Days Due to Physical and Mental Health

Graham, E. K., Mroczek, D. K., & Elleman, L. G. (2015). Personality & earnings lost: The economic costs of work cut back days due to physical and mental health. International journal of personality psychology, 1(1), 1.

Year: 
2015
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Personality traits have emerged as significant contributors to physical and mental health, as well as various economic outcomes including income. Few studies have explored whether personality is related to the frequency of days lost on the job due to physical or mental health issues, and the subsequent economic losses as a result. The current study bridged the health, economic, and personality variables to determine whether personality was associated with earnings lost due to work cut back days from poor physical or mental health. We found, both concurrently and over a 10 year follow up, that high neuroticism and low openness were associated with more earnings lost due to mental health, while low extraversion was associated with more earnings lost due to physical health. These findings are interpreted in light of the effects that personality may have on an individual’s career and financial outcomes, and the economic effects of untreated physical and mental health problems.

Graham et al., 2017. Personality predicts mortality risk: An integrative data analysis of 15 international longitudinal studies

Graham, E.K., Rutsohn, J.P., Turiano, N.A., Bendayan, R., Batterham, P.J., Gerstorf, D., Katz, M.J., Reynolds, C.A., Sharp, E.S., Yoneda, T.B., Bastarache, E.D., Elleman, L.G., Zelinski, E.M., Johansson, B., Kuh, D., Barnes, L.L., Bennett, D.A., Deeg, D.J.H., Lipton, R.B., Pedersen, N.L., Piccinin, A.M., Spiro, A. 3rd, Muniz-Terrera, G., Willis, S.L., Schaie, K.W., Roan, C., Herd, P., Hofer, S.M., & Mroczek, D.K. (2017). Personality Predicts Mortality Risk: An Integrative Data Analysis of 15 International Longitudinal Studies.

Year: 
2017
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were consistent predictors of mortality across studies. Smoking had a small mediating effect for neuroticism. Country and baseline age explained variation in effects: studies with older baseline age showed a pattern of protective effects (HR < 1.00) for openness, and U.S. studies showed a pattern of protective effects for extraversion. This study demonstrated coordinated analysis as a powerful approach to enhance replicability and reproducibility, especially for aging-related longitudinal research.

Hill et al., 2012. Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Relations Between Personality Traits and Social Well-being in Adulthood

Hill, P. L., Turiano, N. A., Mroczek, D. K., & Roberts, B. W. (2012). Examining concurrent and longitudinal relations between personality traits and social well-being in adulthood. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(6), 698-705.

 

Year: 
2012
Status: 
complete
Abstract: 

Past work has demonstrated that Big Five personality traits both predict relationship success and respond to changes in relationship status. The current study extends this work by examining how developments on the Big Five traits correspond to another important social outcome in adulthood, social well-being. Using the Mid-Life Development in the U.S. longitudinal data sample of adults, the authors examined traits and social well-being at two time points, roughly 9 years apart. Results find support for two primary claims. First, initial levels of social well-being correlated positively with initial standing on extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. Second, changes in social well-being over time coincided with changes on these traits, in the same directions. Taken together, these findings provide broad support that trait development and social well-being development coincide during adulthood.